Our cattle are approximately one year old stockers that we purchase from Early Boots Farm in Sauk Centre, MN.  These animals are lowline (small) black angus steers that have been self weaned and fed on grass their entire lives.  We do not grain finish our animals.  To keep both cattle and pasture happy we have an intensive management schedule that provides long periods of "rest" or non-impact time so the pasture plants can re-grow after they have been eaten and walked on by the cattle.  Electric fencing is used to keep the steers confined to fresh new pasture every 24 to 48 hours.  With this rotation process we are able to move the steers from one small are of the pasture to a new small area every day or two.  Keeping greater than 95% of our pasture untouched by the heavy impact of steer hooves and mouths at any given time allows native plants and animals to utilize the same space with only 2 or 3 disruptions from cattle in a given year.  Steers are the heavy lifters of our restoration process.  By consuming massive amounts of grass (of which up to 90% is returned in manure) these cattle are able to turn grass into protein while adding layers of nutrients to our topsoil.  Healthy topsoil in turn allows for better water retention during rainstorms, more plant growth each year (reducing carbon in the atmosphere), and ultimately allowing more animals to be raised on the same acreage.